Passing the Turing Test

I don’t know when I first learned of ELIZA the primitive chatterbot written by Joseph Weizenbaum back in the 60s. I’ve known about her specifically in her manifestation as DOCTOR, the psychoanalyst computer, for as long as I can remember. ELIZA used simple pattern matching to produce responses to typed questions, responses which seemed startlingly human like at times in those early days of Artificial Intelligence research.

Looking back through my reading I suspect I first came across ELIZA either in Carl Sagan’s The Dragons of Eden (1977), chapter 8, “The Future Evolution of the Brain”, or in Arthur C. Clarke’s Report on Planet Three (1972), chapter 12, “The Mind of the Machine”. I’m not sure which I read first, but I’m certain I read The Dragons of Eden shortly after it came out in paperback in April 1978. So, I probably learned of ELIZA a little more than a decade after she was developed. Within another decade, I had my own computer in my home! It was time for me to do some AI work of my own!

I still have that Tandy 1000sx down in the basement. It has trouble booting these days, sadly. But on that machine I conducted an experiment which I think shows that the Turing Test may cut both ways.

In my first year of university (1978-80) I took a Computer Science course. In those days a Computer was a Mainframe. I learned a version of Fortran and APL. I did a little programming. Somehow the Fortran actually stuck with me so when I sat down at my Tandy I was able to quickly puzzle out how to code in BASIC and I wrote the first version of a stupidly simple program I pretentiously called “DIOGENES”. Some time later I rewrote it in Qbasic and last night I dug up that version from an old hard drive and ran it.

It’s still stupidly simple. Maybe just stupid.

The idea I wanted to investigate was what a program would look like if it simply collected everything ever said to it and responded to each input statement by regurgitating a random line of its constantly growing file of old inputs. The program is absurdly simple. There’s the actual program, consisting of twenty-seven short lines of code, and a text file called “mind” which stores all inputs, appending line after line. Each time the user hits RETURN, the program appends the user’s input to “mind” and then picks a random line from “mind” and outputs it. In the old days, DIOGENES very quickly bogged down in slow processing which may have made the thing look like it was actually pausing to think.

What most surprised me about DIOGENES is that one evening when I had friends over I showed the program to them, explaining how it worked. One friend remained in front of the Tandy while the rest of us wandered away in conversation. About forty-five minutes later, Mike pulled himself away from the computer, came into the living room and shouted “That thing is amazing!”

I can’t help but think that DIOGENES hadn’t pass the Turing Test so much as Mike had failed it.

For the record, here’s the code of DIOGENES, my one and only, and perplexingly successful, attempt at creating artificial intelligence.

PRINT “Please type ‘goodbye’ when you are finished.”
OPEN “mind.txt” FOR APPEND AS #1
IF a$ = “goodbye” THEN PRINT ” “
IF a$ = “goodbye” THEN PRINT “see you”
IF a$ = “goodbye” THEN END
PRINT #1, a$
Numoflines = 0
OPEN “mind.txt” FOR INPUT AS #2
Numoflines = Numoflines + 1
LINE INPUT #2, lin$
OPEN “mind.txt” FOR INPUT AS #3
linenum = INT(RND * Numoflines) + 1
FOR i = 1 TO linenum
LINE INPUT #3, lin$
PRINT lin$

If you can find a machine to run it on, have at it!

Reminiscences and Thoughts Arising from Reading “The End of Absence” by Michael Harris

In The End of Absence Michael Harris shows himself to be a disciple of Marshall McLuhan, or at least a disciple of Douglas Coupland’s Marshall McLuhan. Harris necessarily makes reference to McLuhan in his (too brief) anecdotal investigation of the ubiquity of social media and the internet in our lives. I found Harris’ Glossary at the back of the book a little too clever-clever and an overly self-conscious homage to the marginalia of Coupland’s Generation X, that marginalia obviously being rooted in McLuhan’s The Medium is the Massage and some other late work.

The End of Abscence shines, however, in Harris’ exposition of the idea that there is a generation alive today which remembers the time before the internet. Harris — and I, and my parents — it’s actually a multi-generational cohort — straddle the change which may be more revolutionary than the Gutenberg upheaval McLuhan described.

Unlike The Gutenberg Galaxy which won the 1963 Governor General’s Literary Award for non-fiction, The End of Absence, this years GG non-fiction winner, is a quick, breezy read. I finished it in two leisurely evenings with my smart phone beside me. The fact that such a light read won the GG is perhaps an indication that the GG judges’ attention spans have shortened significantly over the past half century.

At the midpoint of my loping journey through this book, memories were triggered by a passage in which Harris is grappling with the shimmering meaning of “authenticity”:

A prime example is the Google Books project, which has already scanned tens of millions of titles with the ultimate goal of democratizing human knowledge at an unprecedented scale — the new technology needs the old one (briefly) for content; the old one needs the new (forever) to be seen by a larger audience. Screen resolution and printout resolution are now high enough that digital versions satisfy researchers, who no longer need to look at original manuscripts (unless they’re hungry for first-person anecdotes).

As though first-person anecdotes are mere frippery rather than the personal expression of authentic human experience. After all, what is “The End of Absence” if not a long first-person anecdote?

Harris continues:

A real Latin copy of Copernicus’s De revolutionibus, for example, waits for us in the stacks of Jagiellonian University in Kraków; but it, like a fourth-century version of Virgil’s work or a twelfth-century version of Euclid’s, is handily available in your living room (sans airfare). It’s thrilling: our sudden and undreamed-of access to magazine spreads as they appeared in the pages of Popular Science in the 1920s or copies of Boccaccio’s Decameron as they appeared in the nineteenth century. The old, white-gloved sacredness of the manuscript is rendered moot in the face of such accessibility. Literary critic Stephan Füssel has argued that this means the “precious old book and the new medium have thus formed an impressive invaluable symbiosis.” I would only add: For now.
(pp. 102-3)

Well, I’ll tell you, “first-person anecdotes” should not be dismissed, and there is nothing shimmering about “authenticity” in my mind. I’ve told at least one first-person anecdote about books before. Here’s another:

On Monday, June 20, 1983, I stood nervously outside an ancient-looking doorway at the side of Exeter Cathedral in south-west England. I had just finished my undergraduate degree and two spring session courses. My first academic publication was in press — I’d mailed the corrected proofs back to Chicago shortly before leaving for Europe.

As I stood at that doorway I was pausing in my circuitous travel to the south of Italy where I would be introduced to hands-on Classical Archaeology. I was to be one of a number of students, mostly Canadian, some American, under the supervision of Dr. Alastair Small and Dr. Bob Buck. A few years earlier Dr. Buck had taught me Latin in a brutal course in which he drove us far harder than usual in those days. I’m forever grateful for Dr. Buck’s pushing, which had us go from clueless sophomores to more or less competent readers of Virgil by years end.

I stood at that door in Exeter because those galley proofs I’d mailed off a few weeks before discussed the meaning of a word, a single word, which lay somewhere behind that door, and nowhere else in the world. Behind that door was the Library of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter Cathedral, and in that library was the thousand year old manuscript known, uncolourfully, as The Exeter Book. I had travelled by car and airplane, by train and on foot, to look at The Book.

The door was intimidating. Should I just open it and walk in? There was a grubby little button set into the wall beside the door, like a doorbell button, but looking only slightly younger than the experiments of Faraday.

I pushed the button.

I waited.

A long time later the door burst open and a man came out into the sunshine, apologising as he almost bowled me over, and then going on his way.

I went inside and up the stairs to a small room with a single attendant. I explained that I was a student of Anglo-Saxon poetry from Canada and that I’d be interested in seeing The Book.

“Well, I can’t let you handle it, of course, but it’s right here.”

He leapt up and went to a class case just behind me. I turned. There it was, so magnificent! So beautiful!

I looked down through the glass, only inches from Leofric’s “mycel englisc boc be gehwilcum þingum on leoðwisan geworht.” It stood open roughly at the midpoint of its hundreds of leaves. I looked at the text on the verso and recognised it! It was “The Seafarer”! I read along to the end of the verso. There, the last word on that page was “hean” the very word that was the subject of my first academic publication! The Book had been waiting there, ready, open at folio 81b, and my word.

The librarian kindly let me handle and spend quiet time with the magnificent facsimile edition of The Book — a very rare volume itself — published in 1933.

I said thank you and left, later writing in my diary simply:

I’m tired now after much walking. I don’t think I’ll go to Exeter University.
I saw the book.


Later, while preparing my dissertation on “The Wanderer”, another poem in The Book I discovered that the University of Alberta Library had an item of interest in its Special Collections. I mentioned that the 1933 facsimile was quite rare. It turns out it had been microfilmed (a primitive form of Google Books). But that microfilm was also quite rare not something the University had managed to acquire. But, the university did get a hold of a photocopy of the microfilm of the facsimile of The Exeter Book. And, thanks to the generosity of the Special Collections staff in the early 80s, I have in my possession a photocopy of that photocopy of that microfilm of that facsimile of  The Exeter Book!


I remember well the awed look on my thesis supervisor’s face when I pluncked that stack of photocopied sheets down in front of him:

“Where did you get this?!” asked Dr. McKill breathlessly.


I later bound those sheets myself by hand. Nothing archival about the thing. Just nice. Standing, holding that old stack of photocopies, looking at my old young handwriting in my journal, and remembering standing inches from The Book on my way to digging Roman ruins — these present moments of remembering moments of actual presence have more “authenticity” than Google Books will ever bring. Sure Google Books makes travelling for research unnecessary. But I didn’t travel to Exeter to do research. I did all my research at home in Edmonton, in books and libraries. No. I went to Exeter to be in the presence of The Book. Google still can’t do that for me. But Google just might make a young scholar decide against making the effort to go to Exeter to develop that “authentic” first-person anecdote. Google may prevent a young scholar from even imagining the trip. That is tragic, I think.

On page 200, Harris writes:

Technology is neither good nor evil. The most we can say about it is this: It has come.

But Harris is referencing the epigram of his own first chapter, the words of historian of technology Melvin Kranzberg. In fact, Kranzberg was able to say more about technology than “It has come.” As Harris knows, Kranzberg’s full words are:

Technology is neither good nor bad, nor is it neutral.

Nor, indeed, is it neutral.

“Legacy” by Waubgeshig Rice: Some Thoughts

Waubgeshig Rice’s Legacy is a powerful debut novel, a most worthy follow up to his first book, the four story collection Midnight Sweatlodge, which I’ve previously discussedLegacy, although showing a few first novel weaknesses, cements Waubgeshig Rice’s position as a Canadian author to watch, and, more importantly, as a storyteller to be paid attention.

As I mentioned, Legacy has a few first novel problems — perhaps a few every novel problems.  The vocabulary a few times feels like Rice is straining for a 25 cent word, for example.  But the problems are few and forgivable.  Rice has mad a fine start on transitioning from the short story to the novel.  That having been said, Legacy has much in common with Midnight Sweatlodge beyond the obvious Anishinaabe setting.

The story of the Gibson family in Legacy is in many ways a series of separate but deeply interlaced and interdependent short stories.  Where Midnight Sweatlodge is a set of thematically linked short stories, Legacy is the interlaced story of a single Anishinaabe family dealing with the implications of Legacy, all the legacies of human existence, from the legacies our younger selves leave our future selves, to the sins and violations of the father and the mother visited upon the sons and daughters to the seventh generation.  While Legacy is specifically about Anishinaabe life and death in the modern world, in the City and on the Reserve, Rice isn’t swinging a clumsy ethnic sledgehammer.

Legacy is a story obviously close to Rice, a young, social media savvy writer/journalist who has succeeded in Ottawa, apparently without compromise, while keeping at least one foot firmly back home on the shore of Georgian Bay.  But Legacy is not a novel “for” Anishinaabe or Indigenous People any more than Gordon Pinsent’s classic “The Rowdyman” is a film for Newfoundlanders or H. G. Wells’ Ann Veronica is a novel “for” Edwardian British shop girls.  That I  feel the need to point it out perhaps says something unfortunate about lingering “mainstream” Canadian views of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit art and literature.

I see no point in summarizing Rice’s story.  The best summary is always to say “Read it!”  Instead, a metaphor.  Legacy is, to put it simply, an illustration of how five siblings play the hands they’ve been dealt in life, and the hands they themselves deal by living.   Truly, the hands they begin with are all very similar, but the game of life always has a multitude of hidden players, and outcomes are always unpredictable.  Near the end, on page 189, someone says to someone (no spoilers here):

You had a chance to redefine that legacy.

That sentence is, I think, key to understanding Rice’s novel.  We are rarely given the chance in life to redefine a legacy. If the chance comes, we must seize it.  Maybe I have included a spoiler.

A particular stylistic detail I want to point out caused me very early in my reading to tweet that Legacy had lots of “What’s he doing? — Ah! I see!” moments.  What I was thinking of is a contrast between Rice’s urban scenes and the scenes back in Birchbark, the Gibson’s home community on the shores of Georgian Bay.  Legacy opens with Eva, one of the siblings, walking down a Toronto street in late winter.  The detail of description is claustrophobic.  The sedans and minivans pushing the brown and grey snow against the burbs are boxy and brown and yellow and the passing men have mullets and moustaches and wear tight suits in grey and blue.  And all that is packed into part of one short paragraph!  That’s what made me ask “what’s he doing?”

But then Eva remembers childhood, flashing back to the Lake Huron beach with her mother, in .  And it was like I could breathe again.  Rice’s descriptions are every bit as vivid in Birchbark, but all is calm and comfortable.  This descriptive contrast is quite cinematographic, perhaps a legacy of Rice’s work as a videographer.  Whatever the source, the technique works brilliantly and a little frighteningly subliminally.  The city scenes, even the most mundane, are anxiety producing, while Birchbark, even in the midst of a drunken teenage brawl, is strangely comfortable.  Rice has brilliantly evoked the Rez to City, the rural to urban,, the village to town harsh journey that has confronted so many generations and made it seamlessly contemporary.

When I briefly discussed Midnight Sweatlodge, I suggested that Waubgeshig Rice was a writer to watch.  I’ll say now that he is a storyteller I will continue to follow with much interest and, I fully expect, with tremendous enjoyment and to my great intellectual benefit.  It is a great pleasure to watch the development of a young writer of such fine achievement and even greater promise.

Legacy by Waubgeshig Rice is published by Theytus Books.  Seek it out.